How Breastfeeding Benefits Mom and Baby

In recent years, study after study has come out revealing a huge number of reasons why breastfeeding is the best choice for a newborn baby. Not only does it have many health benefits for the baby, new research is now proving it’s healthy for the mom as well. Making the choice to breastfeed your baby is without a doubt the best thing you can do for both of you.

Breastfeeding and Nutrition

Breast milk is a complex liquid; it comprises an incredible number of vitamins, minerals, and antibodies that your baby simply can’t get anywhere else. In spite of improvements to formula over the years, it is still light years away from matching what nature has created for your baby.

In addition to providing compounds that can’t be replicated, breast milk is created by the body to meet the specific needs of your baby. Studies have shown that the composition of breast milk changes over time as your baby’s nutritional needs change with growth. The body even adjusts the content of the breast milk to meet the needs of a baby born prematurely. Thus, your particular breast milk is the best possible baby food for your particular baby.

Benefits for the Baby

The benefits to breastfeeding your baby are numerous, and more are being discovered all the time. Breast milk is the only source of antibodies in the first months of life, when baby’s body isn’t yet able to produce them. This means that a breastfed baby will have greater protection against illness. Even when baby’s body does start to produce antibodies, the breast milk will continue to provide immune support. Breastfed babies suffer fewer colds and other common childhood illnesses than babies who are formula fed.

Breastfed babies are also less likely to develop a number of health problems later in life, including obesity, respiratory problems including asthma, allergies, leukemia, diabetes and many more. Studies have also indicated that breastfeeding reduces the chances of SIDS.

Breast milk is easier for a baby’s delicate digestive system to handle, so it may also reduce problems with gas, constipation and reflux.

Benefits for the Mother

New research shows that mothers who breastfeed have lower incidences of postpartum depression. They are also at a lower risk of both breast and ovarian cancer. In addition to these major health benefits, breastfeeding can help a new mother to lose the extra baby weight faster, as the production of breast milk burns calories.

The benefits aren’t just health ones either. Breastfeeding saves a large amount of money over having to purchase formula, which can be very expensive. You also won’t have to purchase bottles, nipples, or sterilizing products – nor will you have to spend time on the process of sterilization. This can be a huge benefit in the middle of the night, when you can simply feed baby without having to go make a bottle and get it to the right temperature.

One of the biggest benefits of breastfeeding for both mom and baby is the special bond that it creates. The time spent nursing your baby will become a special quiet time that you will cherish. Studies have shown that the skin-on-skin contact is beneficial to baby’s growth and development as well. For this reason, a system of skin contact known as “kangaroo care” has been implemented in hospitals with premature babies who are not yet able to nurse. Premature babies who get kangaroo care tend to do better than those who do not. Your baby can get the same benefits from time spent breastfeeding.

Feeding Your Baby Breast Milk in a Bottle

For many women who choose to breastfeed, there will come a time when you might want to give baby a bottle of pumped breast milk, or have someone else take over a feeding that way. There is nothing wrong with giving your breastfed baby a bottle either occasionally or even regularly. Breast milk is the same no matter what the source. You might find, however, that your baby is resistant to the bottle, so take it slowly and follow these tips.

Breast Milk in a Bottle – Pick Your Timing

Most breastfeeding experts recommend against giving a breastfed baby a bottle in the first few weeks of life. During this time, baby and you are establishing breastfeeding, both learning the necessary skills and also getting your milk supply regulated.

Because sucking from a bottle requires a different mechanism of the baby’s mouth to extract milk than does nursing, babies who are given bottles in the first weeks of life may have more difficulty learning to latch on to the breast properly, or may prefer the bottle because it is easier to get milk from. Giving a bottle too early can be detrimental to the long-term success of breastfeeding.

Although you may have heard that giving the baby a bottle earlier will make it more likely to be accepted, it isn’t worth the risk of damaging the process of establishing proper nursing.

Choosing the Right Bottle

When selecting bottles for breast milk, look for a wide mouth bottle with a larger nipple. These wider nipples are designed to feel more like the breast to the baby, making it more likely that your baby will accept the bottle. You might also want to consider choosing bottles that attach directly to your breast pump for convenience, but these are often not the wide mouth type. Some pumps do have a converter that allows you to use the wide mouth bottles on the pump.

Feeding Breast Milk in a Bottle for the First Time

Don’t be surprised if baby refuses the bottle the first time you try. Remember that this is a new experience, and your baby has no idea what a bottle is! Keep it familiar by feeding baby in the same position in which you normally nurse, slightly modified. If you use a nursing pillow, you should also use it for bottle feeding. Try to warm the bottle to a temperature very close to breast milk from the body – you can estimate this better if you test freshly pumped breast milk to know how it feels. You may have more success if you attempt bottle feeding when the baby is very hungry and searching for food, but beware that this might also cause frustration for the baby who is looking for the breast and instead finds the bottle.

Odds are that once baby discovers that the bottle contains the same milk as the breast, you won’t have much trouble with feeding your baby breast milk in a bottle. To encourage this, try putting some breast milk on the outside of the nipple so that when you touch it to baby’s lips, the taste and smell of breast milk make the bottle more appetizing.

Most babies will have no difficulty switching back and forth between the breast and bottle if you time it right and go slowly at the beginning. You may find though, that baby does show a preference for one or the other. Just like anyone else, babies will have opinions and preferences! In most cases though, this won’t lead to refusal of either the breast or the bottle in the long term.

Does Breast Size Affect Ability to Breastfeed?

Many women worry that the size of their breasts will impact the amount of milk they are able to provide for baby. Fortunately, there is no correlation between breast size and milk production. No matter what the size of your breasts, you can still successfully breastfeed your baby.

Breast Size and Milk Production

The only difference between larger breasts and smaller breasts is their capacity to store milk. Larger breasts will be able to hold more milk, and thus a woman with larger breasts may be able to go longer between feedings without feeling engorged. A woman with smaller breasts will likely feel full sooner and need to relieve the pressure either through feeding or pumping. Many women find their breasts grow even larger post-partum than during pregnancy. You may be several cup sizes above where you started when you found out you were pregnant. When your milk comes in, your size will likely peak, and then subside a bit later in the breastfeeding process.

The storage capacity of your breasts does not mean you can’t make the same amount of milk! It just means less milk is being held in the breast at any given time. Your body can quickly and easily replace the milk as the baby feeds. You can produce just as much milk with small breasts as with larger ones.

Women with very large or very small breasts may have some issues with getting baby latched on. It will take a bit of practice to figure out what works best. You can try different ways of holding the baby, or use pillows under baby’s head to get it in the right position. With some trial and error you will soon find the right placement.

What Does Affect Milk Supply?

The production of milk is a supply and demand process. Every time your baby feeds, the body kicks into gear to replace the milk that was used. The more often your baby feeds, the more milk your body will produce to keep the supply up to the need. If you have to go a long time between feedings, such as if you are at work all day, pumping during the day will keep your body producing milk. It doesn’t take long for milk production to slow down or to pick up based on the demand. If you find your milk seems a bit low, add a pumping or feeding session and it should come back up quickly.

Other factors will affect your milk production as well. Poor diet, dehydration, illness, fatigue and stress can all cause milk production to slow down. Make sure that you are eating a healthy, balanced diet and drinking plenty of fluids to support your body’s ability to make milk. It might be hard to get a good night’s sleep with a baby in the house, but rest whenever you can – even a catnap during the day can help. Taking good care of your body will keep your milk supply strong.

There are certain medications that can inhibit milk supply. Talk to your doctor before taking any medication, whether over the counter or prescription while you are breastfeeding. Even some medications deemed safe for the baby can be detrimental to your milk supply.

Women have the natural ability to produce the perfect baby food for their babies. No matter what your breast size, your baby will get the best nutrition possible from breast milk, and will be able to get enough to grow and thrive as long as you take good care of yourself.

The Proper Method of Warming Baby Bottle

Whether you are warming a bottle of breast milk or of formula, you need to take special precautions to make sure that you don’t overheat the contents, or destroy precious nutrients. There are a couple of safe options for warming baby bottle.

A Word on the Microwave

The microwave oven has become a staple of the modern kitchen because of its fast cooking and convenience. As wonderful is your microwave might be for warming up leftovers, you should never use it to warm a bottle of formula or breast milk. Microwaves can create hot spots in the liquid that might not go away even with careful stirring or shaking. This can cause serious burns to your baby. Microwaves can also damage the nutritional makeup of breast milk. So though it might be tempting, skip the microwave when warming baby bottle.

Baby Milk Bottle Warmers

There are a number of devices on the market specifically designed for warming up a baby’s bottle. The two main types both use water to warm baby bottle, but while one actually heats up the water that the bottle is sitting in, the other flash heats the water to create steam, which heats the liquid in the bottle. Both are effective, but the steam type tends to be faster.

The main problem with either of these baby milk bottle warmer designs is that it can be difficult to get just the right level of heat. Most of them have an alarm that tells you when the bottle is done, but that doesn’t necessarily mean it’s at the right temperature. The amount of milk or formula in the bottle, the type of bottle, and the amount of water in the machine can all affect the end temperature. You might find your baby waiting impatiently while an over heated bottle cools – not a good thing in the middle of the night.

Some baby milk bottle warmers also have a cooler section to keep milk cold, allowing you to store bottles in baby’s room or your room overnight instead of heading to the kitchen to get one from the fridge when baby is hungry.

The Old-fashioned Way

Many people still prefer the pre-bottle warmer method of heating a bottle. Simply place the bottle in a larger vessel filled with hot tap water, and wait. You will have to check it repeatedly, and may have to replace the tap water with hotter water to continue warming baby bottle. This method may take longer than the baby milk bottle warmer, but it is less likely to cause overheating.

Because the water in the surrounding vessel is slowly cooling, at some point it will have heated the bottle as much as it possibly can, and heating will stop. Baby milk bottle warmers, on the other hand, often continue to apply heat, causing the bottle to overheat.

The other advantage of the old-fashioned method is that it doesn’t cost a thing, unlike baby milk bottle warmers which can be expensive.

No matter which method you choose, always test the temperature of the milk or formula on the inside of your wrist for appropriate temperature before feeding it to baby. It should not be much more than lukewarm, and definitely not hot. Grown ups may enjoy a steaming cup of coffee, but your baby’s sensitive tongue can’t handle that kind of heat. When warming a bottle of breast milk or formula, be sure to gently swirl the contents of the bottle around.

baby milk bottle warmer

Safe Storage of Breast Milk

If you are using a breast pump to express milk and don’t plan to feed the milk to your baby immediately, you should know how to store breast milk safely it in order to avoid spoiling. While breast milk can actually stay out at room temperature safely for several hours, if you aren’t planning to use it it’s best to get it into the fridge right away.

Breast Milk Storage Containers

If you are storing breast milk for use within a few days, you can simply store breast milk in the same bottles you plan to feed the baby from. Just make sure the baby bottle has a cap that seals securely. This will make warming the baby bottle easier as well, as you won’t have to transfer it to a new container.

If you plan to freeze your breast milk, you should use breast milk storage containers designed specifically for the purpose. The easiest to use are breast milk storage bags, as they take up less room in the freezer and can be disposed off after use. There are also plastic bottles available that you can use to store breast milk securely. When filling your breast milk storage containers, leave space for the expansion that will occur upon freezing. Bags will be easy to stack if you freeze them lying flat. Make sure to date every breast milk storage container you freeze.

How Long to Store Breast Milk

Unlike formula, which can only be left out at room temperature for an hour before it has to be thrown away, breast milk is ok at room temperature for 4 hours or more. If your house is hot or you have had the milk sitting out in the sun, this time is much shorter. Just like with regular milk, you can always smell it to see if it shows signs of spoiling. When in doubt, throw it out. Milk kept in the fridge may separate. Gently swirl it around to mix it back together.

Breast milk can be stored in the freezer section of your refrigerator for up to three months. A chest freezer, which has lower temperatures, will allow you to store breast milk for up to six months.

Thawing Breast Milk

The best way to thaw breast milk is in the fridge overnight. Alternatively, you can set the frozen bag in a bowl of warm water to thaw more quickly. When removing bags of milk from the freezer, be sure to use the oldest frozen milk first, as you have more time to use the newer milk. After thawing, transfer the milk to a bottle. Never use the microwave to thaw or warm breast milk. It can create hot spots and can also kill nutrients in the milk.

If You Have Excess Breast Milk

If you find that you are freezing more milk than your baby will ever need, or it will go bad before you will use it, there is an alternative to throwing it out. Milk banks across the country accept donations of breast milk to be provided to babies whose own mothers are unable to provide it, and who can not tolerate formula for a variety of reasons. There is a screening process for donors to ensure the safety of the milk supply. Although it may take a little of your time, it is well worth the chance to save the life of a baby. Contact the hospital where you had your baby or your doctor to find out where to donate breast milk.

Proper Measurement and Mixing of Formula

Although a can of powdered formula comes with a special scoop that should make it easy to measure and prepare a bottle properly, there remain a number of parents who make serious mistakes when putting together a bottle. Infant formula has been specifically designed to be fed to baby with a certain ratio of powder to water, and failing to follow the instructions can have consequences for your baby.

Measuring Properly

For most infant formulas, the ratio will be one scoop of powder to every two ounces of water. Even if your baby will not eat the full amount, it’s better to make an extra ounce rather than trying to eye what comprises a half-full scoop of formula in order to come up with an uneven number of ounces. If your baby normally takes 5 ounces, you should go ahead and make six in order to be sure your measurements are accurate.

Never use the scoop from an old can of formula in a new can. Each can comes with a fresh scoop, so discard the old one and use the new one. Over time, bacteria may contaminate a can of formula as well as the scoop. If you use the old scoop in a new can, you risk passing bacteria into the freshly opened formula.

Never Dilute Formula

Many parents will give their baby a bottle of formula that has been diluted; this means that they have added more water than the recommended two ounces to every scoop. Formula already contains the right amount of water for your baby’s needs. Giving a young baby too much water can actually be dangerous to their health. Too much water affect the ability of the baby’s body to absorb nutrients. There is also a dangerous condition called water intoxication that can be very serious; it occurs when the levels of electrolytes in the body are changed by too much water. Water intoxication can cause seizures and even put your baby into a coma.

Never give a baby under six months old extra water. If you have reason to suspect dehydration in your baby, contact your pediatrician right away for advice. Electrolyte beverages are the best choice for treating dehydration in babies, and will work more effectively than water.

Mixing Formula with Breast Milk

It is generally ok to combine breast milk and formula in the same bottle, whether you have been advised to do so for special reasons, or you are combining breast milk and formula in your baby’s diet. If you plan to combine them however, you should pre-mix the formula with water first, and then add the prepared formula to the breast milk. This prevents the powdered formula from making the breast milk too thick and also stops potential changes to the nutritional composition of the milk.

Because breast milk has a longer shelf life than formula, it can be wasteful to mix the two together. Any breast milk that has had formula added will need to be discarded according to the shelf life of formula and not of the milk. Don’t add formula to breast milk until right before a feeding. If possible, feed baby from two different bottles rather than mixing them. If you plan to wean from breast milk to formula, this will help baby to become accustomed to the new taste.

Shelf Life of Infant Formula

Infant formula, even in powdered form, does not keep indefinitely. It can become contaminated with bacteria that are dangerous to your baby. Make sure to be aware of formula expiration dates so that you are always feeding your baby a safe bottle.

Expiration Dates of Powdered Formula

The can of powdered formula will have a “use by” date stamped somewhere on the surface. This is the date after which the formula, even if unopened, should be discarded. When purchasing formula, check this date before you buy to make sure you will be able to use it prior to the expiration date.

Once a can of formula has been opened, it should only be used for one month and then discarded. When you open a new can, mark the date of opening on the lid so that you will know when it’s time to get a new can and throw away anything left in the old one. While many parents are a bit lax on this dating, it can be dangerous to baby to go much past the one month date. Formula is perishable baby food and is subject to the same rules as other perishable foods.

To prevent formula from being contaminated sooner, be sure to use only the provided scoop to measure your formula, and wash your hands thoroughly prior to handling it. If the scoop becomes dirty, you can wash it carefully in hot soapy water, and let it dry before returning it to the can. Every time you open a new can you should discard the old scoop and use the one included with the freshly opened can.

Prepared Formula Shelf Life

Ready to use formula will also be stamped with an expiration date beyond which it should not be used even if unopened. Once opened, any formula not being fed to baby should be refrigerated immediately and used within 48 hours.

Whether ready to use or prepared with water, formula should not be left out at room temperature for more than an hour, and should be discarded after that time. Prepared bottles will keep in the refrigerator for up to 48 hours.

Always discard any unused portion of your baby’s formula that has been left behind after a feeding. Bacteria from the baby’s mouth may contaminate the formula and even refrigeration may not stop it from going bad.

Special Considerations for Formula

Formula may go bad even faster under certain circumstances. If your house is hot during the summer, or you have been out in the sunshine, the time in which the formula may become no longer safe to consume will be shortened. When you take a prepared bottle of formula along with you for use on an errand, you should use in ice pack to keep it cold. A better choice is to bring the water in the bottle and a pre-measured portion of formula powder to be mixed when baby is ready to eat.

If your baby likes to graze on the bottle and does not finish it all in one sitting, it will be necessary to take it away and replace it with fresh formula after one hour has passed. Try to encourage baby to drink as much as possible right away at feeding time to prevent a lot of waste.

Use caution and pay close attention to expiration dates so that your baby’s bottles will always be safe for consumption.

How to Know if Baby is Eating Enough

When bottle feeding, it’s easy to tell how much your baby is eating just by looking at the bottle. It can be a little harder to tell, however, if you are breastfeeding. There are ways of knowing exactly how much your baby is getting from the breast, but it probably isn’t necessary. You can tell baby is getting enough to eat by a few simple signs.

How Much Baby is Getting From the Breast

If your baby has special weight gain circumstances, such as prematurity, you may be asked to do a weight test to find out how much milk baby is getting from the breast. This involves weighing baby just prior to nursing, and then directly afterwards. The increase in weight will tell you how much milk the baby got during that feeding.

For most babies, however, this type of close measuring isn’t necessary or feasible. It requires a very sensitive scale, which can be purchased or rented from the hospital, but really isn’t necessary except in special circumstances.

Other Ways of Gauging Intake

There are some simple ways to tell if your baby is getting enough to eat when nursing. The first and most obvious is weight gain over time. Your pediatrician will weigh your baby every time you come in for a check up, and check it against previous weights on a growth chart. As long as your baby is gaining weight at a normal rate, there is likely nothing to worry about as far as eating habits.

If you can’t wait for a check up to find out if baby is eating enough, you can call your doctor’s office and ask to come in for a simple weight check. You won’t see the doctor, but a nurse will check your baby’s weight. Alternatively, you can watch for a few simple signs that baby is doing just fine.

A baby who is getting enough milk should have a wet diaper at least every 6 hours. The frequency of bowel movements is less important, especially in a breastfed infant. Because breast milk is used so effectively by your baby’s body, there is often little waste. A breastfed baby may go as long as two weeks between bowel movements. This is not a cause for concern unless there is some sign of discomfort or straining. Breastfed babies rarely become constipated, and as long as there are no other signs it’s not likely a sign of lack of food either. If you are concerned about how long baby has gone without a bowel movement, call your pediatrician.

Your baby will also give you signals of hunger and satisfaction. After a feeding, baby should appear sated and relaxed. If you see signs of rooting, fussing or sucking motions, baby might still be feeling hungry. Falling asleep or being easily distracted from the breast are signs baby’s tummy is full.

Your baby will eat different amounts at various feedings based on the time of day, baby’s mood and energy level, and other factors such as distractions. Don’t worry if baby comes off the breast before you think enough time has passed for a full feeding. Babies are very good at letting us know when they are hungry, and they also know when they are not hungry. Take your cues from your baby and you are unlikely to encounter any problems with the quantity of the feedings.

Prevention and Treatment of Heartburn in Pregnancy

Heartburn is one of the most common complaints of pregnant women. It can be so incredibly painful as to be nearly debilitating, interrupting sleep and making meals unpleasant. Thankfully, there are ways to avoid and to treat heartburn that are safe during pregnancy.

What Is Heartburn?

Heartburn is caused by stomach acids rising up in to the esophagus, also called reflux. It happens when the sphincter at the opening of the esophagus relaxes, allowing the acids that break down food in the stomach to come up. This creates a burning feeling that, if left untreated, can eventually damage the esophagus. This type of chronic reflux is a serious problem that needs to be treated by a doctor. Fortunately, reflux in pregnant women is just a temporary condition.

A number of factors are to blame for heartburn during pregnancy, most of them not controllable. The changes in hormone levels, new sensitivities to food, and the pressure being put on the stomach by the growing baby can all contribute to heartburn. Fortunately, there are some things you can do to reduce your chances of getting heartburn, and to treat it when it does occur.

Diet and Heartburn

What you eat, as well as how much you eat, can affect the odds of having problems with reflux. Eating meals that are too large, fried or very spicy can all cause heartburn to occur. Try to eat smaller, more frequent meals rather than large ones all at once. Take your time eating, and make sure your food is thoroughly chewed before you swallow. Eating more slowly will also prevent overeating by allowing your body time to send the signal to the brain that the stomach is full.

You should avoid lying down after eating, and try instead to take a short walk to encourage digestion. Try not to eat within a few hours of bedtime. If you notice that you get heartburn most often after certain types of foods, you might have to avoid those foods for the duration of your pregnancy.

Treatment of Heartburn

Before you try medications for heartburn, there are a few natural remedies that might be beneficial. If you find that your heartburn occurs mainly when you lie down, try to sleep propped up on extra pillows. This elevation will allow gravity to help keep stomach acids down where they belong.

Some foods, such as milk and peppermint, seem to help with heartburn by neutralizing stomach acids. In fact, many over the counter heartburn medications contain calcium, just like milk.

When simple remedies don’t work, you should be able to use over the counter heartburn meds, many of which are safe during pregnancy. As with any medication, talk to your doctor before taking anything. If you have severe heartburn that is resistant to these medications and is disrupting your life, your doctor can prescribe a stronger medication that is safe for your baby and will alleviate your symptoms.

As with many of the less pleasant parts of pregnancy, your heartburn should disappear after your baby is born. Hopefully however, you won’t have to live with it for the duration of your pregnancy. By changing your diet and eating habits and using a few simple preventative methods, you might be lucky enough to avoid most bouts with heartburn. If not, there are treatment options that are safe and effective. Don’t suffer with bad heartburn needlessly – talk to your doctor!

Nutrition in Your Breast Milk

Breast milk is an amazing liquid. It contains all of the vitamins, minerals, antibodies and more that your baby needs to grow and thrive. The only thing you need to do to make sure that your baby is getting everything needed out of your breast milk is to make sure that you are healthy. Your body will take care of the rest!

Eating a Healthy Diet

While you are breastfeeding, you need to provide your body with all of the nutrients it needs to do that important job of making the perfect baby food for your baby. This means eating a healthy, balanced diet that provides all of the necessary vitamins and minerals as well as the proper amount of calories from fat, protein, and carbohydrates.

Your body will take the nutrients it needs from your body’s stores in order to fill the breast milk with all of the incredible nutrition that your baby can’t get any other way. You will need to replace those nutrients every day. Make sure that the foods you choose are varied and include lots of fruits and vegetables, whole grains, and good protein sources. You should aim to follow the recommended daily amounts for servings from each food group. Try to get 6-9 servings of grains, 2-3 servings of protein, 3-4 servings of dairy, and 5 or more servings of fruits and vegetables. Avoid unhealthy choices such as those high in sugar or unhealthy fats.

Does Your Diet Affect the Nutrition of the Milk?

The answer is a little complicated. While breast milk has been shown to be remarkably nutritionally stable in spite of imperfect nutrition on the part of the mother, there are many ways in which your diet can affect your breast milk. Your body will continue to make nutritionally sound milk for your baby except in cases of extreme deprivation – however, your diet supports your body’s ability to make enough breast milk for baby’s needs.

Eating the right number of calories, keeping your body healthy with a balance of vitamins and minerals, and maintaining adequate fluid intake are all vital to keeping your production of breast milk steady. Remember that your body is working hard to make that milk – you need to give it a steady source of fuel.

There are some things you eat that can affect the composition of breast milk. Research has shown that the type of fat you consume can affect the type of fat most prevalent in your breast milk. Try to stick to healthy unsaturated fats to ensure baby is reaping the benefits these fats provide. The level of fat in breast milk is most affected by the fullness or emptiness of the breast. A highly engorged breast will have a lower fat content than an emptier one. However, as long as your baby nurses regularly, there is no need to worry about the amount of fat in the milk.

The best thing you can do for your baby’s health is to breast feed, and the best thing that you can do to help your body produce healthy breast milk is to be healthy yourself. As long as you are eating nutritious foods and drinking plenty of water, you shouldn’t have to worry about the content of your breast milk. Your body was made to produce that perfect food for baby, and it is very good at the job. All you need to do is support it!

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