Vitamin E

Vitamin E, an antioxidant that,

  • protects cells from oxidation damage
  • assists neurological function
  • prevents anemia
  • protects against ageing
  • encourages skin healing and reduce scarring

Vitamin E deficiency is rare. Excess vitamin E rarely causes any problems

Sources of Vitamin E:

Food / 100g Amount (mg)
Wheatgerm oil 136
Sunflower oil 49
Safflower oil 41
Polyunsaturated oil 38
Sunflower seeds 38
Hazelnuts, shelled 25
Sun-dried tomatoes 24
Almonds 24
Rapeseed oil 22
Cod liver oil 20
Mayonnaise 19
Corn oil 17
Soya oil 16
Groundnut oil 15
Pine nuts 13.5
Popcorn, plain 11
Peanuts, plain 10
Brazil nuts, shelled 7
Low-fat spread 6.3
Sweet potato, baked 6
Potato crisp 5.8
Peanuts and raisins 5.7
Tomato puree 5.4

How Much Vitamins You Need?

Dietary reference intake (DRIs): recommended intakes for infants, children, pregnant women and breastfeeding moms.

Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12 is needed metabolism of nutrients. It is needed to prevent anemia. A deficiency of vitamin B12 can cause pernicious anemia and nerve damage. Vitamin B12 overdose appears to have no toxic effects.

Sources of Vitamin B12:

Food / 100g Amount (µg)
Lamb’s liver 54
Nori seaweed, dried 27.5
Steamed mussels, shelled weight 22
Oyster, shelled weight 17
Sardines, canned in oil, drained 15
Grilled herring 15
Anchovies, canned, drained 11
Rabbit meat 10
Steamed scallops 9
Cooked prawn 8
Grilled skate 8
Steamed salmon 6
Tuna, canned in oil, drained 5
Eggs 2.5
Lean beef 2
Cheddar cheese 1.1

How Much Vitamins You Need?

Dietary reference intake (DRIs): recommended intakes for infants, children, pregnant women and breastfeeding moms.

Vitamin B6

Vitamin B6 is also called Pyridoxine. Metabolism of nutrients is its primary role. A deficiency of vitamin B6 often occurs in association with other vitamins of the B complex. Vitamin B6 overdose can cause nerve damage.

Sources of Vitamin B6:

Food / 100g Amount (mg)
Wheatgerm 3.3
Grilled turbot 2.5
Lentil, dry 0.9
Grilled salmon 0.8
Turkey, light meat 0.8
Squid 0.7
Walnut, shelled 0.7
Beef steak, lean 0.7
Grilled chicken breast, without skin 0.6
Hazelnuts, shelled 0.6
Grilled swordfish 0.6
Baked potato 0.5

How Much Vitamins You Need?

Dietary reference intake (DRIs): recommended intakes for infants, children, pregnant women and breastfeeding moms.

Vitamin B3

Vitamin B3 is also called Niacin. It is needed for tissues repair and metabolism of nutrients. Vitamin B3 deficiency can lead to pellagra (severe deficiency), slower metabolism and decreasing cold tolerance. An excess of vitamin B3 (over 3g a day) can cause liver damage, dilation of the blood vessels and kidney damage.

Sources of Vitamin B3:

Food / 100g Amount (mg)
Yeast extract 73
Chicken breast, without skin 22
Lamb’s liver 21
Tuna canned in oil, drained 21
Grapenuts 20
Roasted turkey, light meat, 20
Peanuts, plain 19
Pork fillet, lean 18
Tuna, fresh 17
Shiitake mushroom, dried 15
Grilled swordfish 14
Grilled mackerel 13

How Much Vitamins You Need?

Dietary reference intake (DRIs): recommended intakes for infants, children, pregnant women and breastfeeding moms.

Vitamin B2

Vitamin B2 is also called Riboflavin. It is essential for the growth and metabolism of nutrients. Vitamin B2 deficiency can be caused by not getting enough of the vitamin from the diet, malabsorption of intestine, or increase in the excretion of the vitamin from the body. The signs and symptoms of vitamin B2 deficiency include:

  • cracked and red lips
  • inflammation of the lining of mouth and tongue
  • mouth ulcers
  • cracks at the corners of the mouth
  • sore throat
  • dry and scaling skin
  • fluid in the mucous membranes
  • iron-deficiency anemia

A deficiency may also cause the eyes to become bloodshot, itchy, watery and sensitive to bright light. Vitamin B2 overdose is not harmful and excess intake of vitamin B2 will be excreted.

Sources of Vitamin B2:

Food / 100g Amount (mg)
Yeast extract 11.9
Lamb’s liver 4.6
Grapenuts 1.5
Nori seaweed, dried 1.3
Vegetable pate 1.3
Liver pate 1.2
Roasted venison 0.7
Goat’s milk cheese 0.6
Cheddar cheese 0.5
Eggs 0.5
Tomato sauce for pasta 0.5

How Much Vitamins You Need?

Dietary reference intake (DRIs): recommended intakes for infants, children, pregnant women and breastfeeding moms.

Vitamin B1

Vitamin B1 is also called Thiamin. It is a water-soluble vitamin that is needed for:

  • enzyme activity
  • metabolism of nutrients

Vitamin B1 deficiency can cause myriad problems including neurodegeneration, wasting and death. It can also lead to beriberi and Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. Excess intake of vitamin B1 is not harmful as it will be excreted.

Sources of Vitamin B1:

Food / 100g Amount (mg)
Yeast extract 4.1
Vegetable burger 4.1
Vegetable pate 2.1
Sunflower seeds 1.6
Bacon rashers, back, grilled 1.2
Peanuts, plain 1.1
Pork, lean fillet 1.1
Wholemeal spaghetti, dry 1.0

How Much Vitamins You Need?

Dietary reference intake (DRIs): recommended intakes for infants, children, pregnant women and breastfeeding moms.

Vitamin A

Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin. Vitamin A is essential for the following body functions:

  • vision
  • growth
  • body development
  • healthy skin

Excess retinol consumption is linked with certain birth defects and foods high in retinol, such as liver, should be avoided by pregnant women.

Sources of Vitamin A:

Food / 100g Amount (µg)
Lamb’s liver 17300
Chicken liver 9700
Liver pate 7400
Cod liver oil 1800
Butter 887
Double cream 654
Stilton cheese, blue 386
Cheddar cheese, average 363
Brie 320
Eggs 190

Sources of Beta-carotene:

Food / 100g Beta-carotene Equivalents (µg) Retinol (µg)
Carrot, old 8118 1353
Sweet potato (orange-fleshed), baked 5130 855
Swiss chard 4596 766
Chilli peppers 4110 685
Red peppers (capsicum) 3840 640
Spinach 3840 640
Butternut squash 3270 545
Curly kale 3144 524
Spring greens 2628 438
Cantoloupe melon 1998 333
Mango 1800 300
Tomato puree 1300 217
Savoy cabbage 990 165
Dark-leave lettuce 910 151
Tomatoes 640 107
Broccoli 575 96

µ = one millionth, 0.000001

How Much Vitamins You Need?

Dietary reference intake (DRIs): recommended intakes for infants, children, pregnant women and breastfeeding moms.

Vitamins

Vitamins are essential to proper functioning of our body’s metabolism. Infants and children are growing rapidly. As a result, vitamins are especially important for good health and proper development of infants and children.

There are two categories of vitamins, namely:

  • Fat-soluble vitamins: Vitamins A, D, E and K are fat-soluble vitamins, which can be stored in our body.
  • Water-soluble vitamins: Vitamin C and vitamins B are water-soluble vitamins, which can not be stored in our body. Excessive water-soluble vitamins will be excreted in the urine. As a result, these vitamins have to be consumed on a regular basis.

Below is a list of vitamins

  • Vitamin A
  • Vitamins B
    • Vitamin B1
    • Vitamin B2
    • Vitamin B3
    • Vitamin B6
    • Vitamin B12
  • Vitamin C
  • Vitamin D
  • Vitamin E
  • Vitamin K

How Much Vitamins You Need?

Dietary reference intake (DRIs): recommended intakes for infants, children, pregnant women and breastfeeding moms.

Zinc

Zinc is essential for normal growth and development, a healthy reproductive system and fertility, healthy foetal development, healthy skin and a strong immune system.

A deficiency of zinc can lead to:

  • increase risk of infections
  • skin lesion
  • hair loss
  • impaired sense of taste and smell
  • low sperm count
  • night blindness
  • retarded growth and sexual development ( during pregnancy and infancy)

The absorption of zinc is affected by the following factors:

  • smoking
  • alcohol

Excessive absorption of zinc can also suppress copper and iron absorption.

Sources of Zinc:

Food / 100g Amount (mg)
Wholemeal 17.0
Calves’ liver 14.2
Poppy seeds 8.5
Raw Oyster (weight including shells) 8.3
Quorn 7.5
Pumpkin seeds 6.6
Pine nuts 6.5
Beefsteak 6.0
Plain cashew nuts 5.9
Sesame seeds 5.3
Parmesan cheese 5.3
Roasted lean lamb leg 5.2
Sunflower seeds 5.1

How Much Mineral You Need?

Dietary reference intake (DRIs): recommended intakes for infants, children, pregnant women and breastfeeding moms.

Sodium

Sodium is needed for

  • regulating the body’s fluid balance (works with potassium and chloride)
  • nerve and muscle activity

High intake of sodium can lead to:

  • high blood pressure
  • heart disease

Excess sodium in the diet is linked with fluid retention and kidney stones.

Sodium deficiency is not common. It may happen during heavy or prolonged exercise because sodium is loss in the sweat. Below are a few signs of sodium deficiency:

  • cramps
  • weakness
  • fatigue
  • nausea
  • thirst

Most of us consume far more sodium than we need. A half stock cube and 15ml soy sauce in your dish could take you up to your daily limit. People who like to cut down their salt intake should limit the amount of processed foods they eat.

Sources of Sodium:

Food / 100g Amount (mg)
Salt 39300
Chicken stock cubes 16300
Soy sauce 7120
Oily chilli pickle 4050
Tomato soup 3100
Black bean sauce 2150
Parma ham 2000
Smoke salmon 1880
Salami 1800
Tomato ketchup 1630
Cooked prawn 1590

How Much Mineral You Need?

Dietary reference intake (DRIs): recommended intakes for infants, children, pregnant women and breastfeeding moms.

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